*The Indian National Congress party is simply called as Congress party.it is political party in India.
Foundation Of Congress party:
*It was founded by retired British Indian civil service officer Allan Octavian Hume.
*It was called at that time a Political party like British India to free India in order to form a platform for civic and Political dialogue among educated Indians.
*After the Indian Rebellion the control of India was transferred from Eat India company to British Empire in the year 1857.
*From that time on wards British controlled India and it was called as British raj,they used to look for English educated Indians who are more friendly to their to their culture and political thinking.
*British authorities started to raising classes to Indians and Anglo Indians educated in the English language based on British tradition.
*In the year may 1885,Hume secured the viceroy’s approval to create an Indian National Union it was combined with the government and act as a platform to voice Indian public opinion.
*In the year October 12 1885,Hume and some educated Indians published An Appeal from the people of India to the Electors of great Britain and Ireland,which asked British voters in the British general election to support candidates to the positions of Indians.
*It was led to failure and they realized that we should fight their battles alone.
*In the year December 28 1885,the Indian National Congress was founded at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay.
*Hume assumed as General Secretary and Womesh chunder Bonnerjee(Calcutta).
*Besides this two British members(both Scottish civil servants)were members of founding group William Wedder burn and justice(later ,sir)John Jardine,the other members were mostly Hindus form Bombay and Madras presidencies.
Social policy of Congress party:
* Congress Social policy is based on Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya which was the lifting up of all sections which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people.
*The party primarily based on social liberalism which means seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice and secularism asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings
*Congress is secular party whose social liberal are considered to be on indian politics .
Winning of Congress in Elections:
*After Independence Congress formed the Central Government of India,and many regional state governments.
*In 15 general elections it has won a majority on six occasions and has led the ruling for four times,and in central government for 49 years.
First Prime Minister of Congress party:
*Jawaharlal Nehru has becamed the first prime minister in congress party in the year 1947(1964).
*Later from 2004 Manmohan Singh becamed prime minister.
Entry Of Indira Gandhi in Congress Party:
*Congress elected Indira Gandhi as a leader over Morarji Desai.
*when she entered into Congress party she observed poor performance in the general election,later she started moving towards the political left.
*She started discussion with senior party leaders with the having issues,the issues were the Gandhi supporting the independent candidate rather than the official Congress party candidate for the vacant post of the president of India.
*The another issue was Mrs.Indira Gandhi abrupt nationalization of the 14 biggest banks in India,this resulted to resignation of the finance Minister (Morarji Desai).
*Later the Congress Party president(S. Nijalingappa) expelled her from the party for indiscipline,with this Mrs.Indira Gandhi launched her own faction of the INC.
*This was called Congress and this supported by most of the MP’s while original party had the support of 65 Mp’s.
*The mid term elections were held in the year 1971 and Gandhi led Congress party won a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies.
*From the year 1975 on wards the Gandhi’s government has been increasingly more authoritarian and it led to unrest among the opposition grew.
*In the year June 12 1975,the high court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi’s election in to loksabha,the lower house of India’s parliament,void on the grounds of electoral malpractice.
*Gandhi rejected to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme court,she moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest.
*Gandhi’s cabinet and Government recommended that President (Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed)declare a State of Emergency,which he did on June 25 1975 based on the provisions of Article 352 of the constitution.
*In nineteen month Indira Gandhi unelected his younger son Sanjay Gandhi.in Jan 23 1977 Gandhi released all his political prisoner’s and called fresh elections in Lok sabha to be held in March.
*At that time BJP won with a majority of 295 seats in Lok Sabha and Congress lost by getting only 153.
*In the year Jan 2 1978,she and her followers seceded and formed new opposition party,called Congress(I)-the signifying Indira.
*The next year her party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition.
*During Indira Gandhi’s as new term Prime minister her son Sanjay Gandhi died in a aeroplane crash in the year June 1980,with his death Rajiv Gandhi entered into politics.
*Mrs.Indira Gandhi became more powerful and she came to known as central figure within congress party.
*Gandhi’s term as Prime Minister also saw increasing turmoil in Punjab,with demands for Sikh autonomy by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his militant followers.
*In the year 1983,they head quarted themselves in the Golden temple in Amritsar and started accumulating weapons.
*In the year June 1984,Indira Gandhi ordered Indian army to enter into Golden temple to control over the complex and to remove Bhindranwale and his armed followers,this event is known as Operation Blue star.
*In the year October 31 1984,two of Gandhi’s bodyguards named Satwant Singh and Beant Singh shot her with their service weapons in the garden of prime minister’s residence in response to her authorization of Operation Blue Star.
*Gandhi was due to be interviewed by British actor Peter Ustinov,who was filming the a documentary for Irish television.
*Her assistance promoted the anti Sikh riots in the year 1984,during which more than 3,000 people were killed.
Entry of Rajiv Gandhi and P.V. Narasimha Rao:
*In the year 1984 Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of congress,and he became prime minister.
*On December he led congress to a landslide victory and it secured 401 seats in the legislature,his administration took measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalize the country economy.
*Rajiv Gandhi attempts led to discourage in Punjab and Kashmir backfired,after his government became his embroiled in several financial scandals,his leadership became increasingly ineffectual.
*He was regarded as non-abrasive person who used to consulted other party members and used to take hasty decisions.
*This damaged his reputation as a honest politician,but he cleared bribery allegations in the year 2004.
*On May 21 1991,he was killed by bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers,at that he was campaigning for upcoming elections.
*The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace of word there had fought with Tamil separatist guerrillas.
*After death of Rajiv Gandhi P.V. Narasimha Rao becamed Prime minister,he was politically significant because he was the first holder of the office from south India.
*P.V. Narasimha Rao enter got a economic change and experienced several home incidents that affected India’s national security.
*Rao was held Industries portfolio,and he was responsible for the dismantling of the Licence of raj,which was came under Ministry of Commerce and Industry.(He was called as father of Indian economic reforms).
*Later Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies begun by Rao’s government.
*Manmohan Singh was employed as finance minister to begin historic economic change,with rao’s mandate,he launched India’s globalization reforms which involved implementing International Monetary Fund policies in order to prevent India from economic collapse.
*In the year 1996 the party got more allegations of corruption and in that year Congress reduced to 140 seats,it was the number in Lok Sabha to that point.
*Later Rao resigned as prime minister and,in September,as party president,he was succeeded as president by Sitaram kesari ,he was the first non-Brahmin leader.
Entry of Sonia Gandhi in Congress Party:
*Congress party members asked Sonia Gandhi to handle the party but at that time she used to stay away from the politics.
*After her election as a party leader,a section of the party objected to the choice because of her Italian ethnicity broke away and formed National Congress party,led by Sharad Pawar.
*This break has made a strong support in the state of Maharashtra and limited support,this continued to be known as Indian National Congress.
*Sonia Gandhi has struggled to revive the party in her early years as president,due to lack of political acumen.
*In the year 1999,Congress plummeted to just 114 seats in the National Democratic Alliance government,although party campaigned strongly and succeed in some places.
*Congress ruled 15 states,for 2004 elections Congress forged alliances with regional parties including National congress party.
*later the party campaigned about the social and welfare of the common masses this campaign called India shining campaign.
*With this Congress led United Progressive Alliance and won 22 seats in the new parliament,with the support of communist front,Congress won and formed new government.
*After winning Sonia Gandhi appointed Manmohan Singh as prime minister and Sonia Gandhi remained as party president and headed as National Advisory council.
*During its first term only the UPA government passed many bills like employment guarantee bill,Right to information Act,Right to education Act.
*The NAC form left front used to support outside government and it support to government over disagreements about the U.S-India Civil Nuclear Agreement,and the perceived divisiveness of the BJP,are broadly credited with victory.
Poor Performance done by Congress party:
*In 2014 elections it didn’t get fare well in India,but it remains one of two major,national wide,political party in India,along with the Hindu nationalist,Bharatiya janata.
*And out of 543 members in loksabha it got only 44 seats.
United Progressive Alliance by Congress Party:
*It was formed in the year from 2004 to 2014,the congress led United Progressive Alliance,a coalition of several regional parties,formed the Indian government and Manmohan Singh was made as Prime Minister.
*At that time Sonia Gandhi was served as president of the party for the long term.
*In the year May 2018,the party was in power in four legislative assemblies(Punjab, Mizoram,Karnataka,Puducherry)
Wrong step taken by Congress Party:
*In the year June 2 2104,the congress decided to give telangana,this the major wrong decision taken by the Congress party.
*At that time the party was in loss of power and they thought if they had given telangana we would return our power but it lead to loss of Party and power.
*With this movement Congress won only 44 seats and it was the worst performance in national election,Sonia Gandhi retired in the year 2017 and elected his son Rahul Gandhi as president of Congress party.
*Now the party was undertaken by Rahul Gandhi.